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近代早期英国高利贷观念的转变

 

学 生 姓 名:黄磊

申请专业名称:世界史

究 方 向 :西欧宗教文化与社会转型

指导教师姓名:龙秀清教授

提交论文日期:2008年5月

 

中文摘要

 

西欧中世纪的经济在很大程度上受到教会伦理的束缚,天主教教会伦理对经济设置了种种限制,从某种程度上说经济生活在教会的控制之下,随着商业的发展,与教会伦理紧密相关的经济伦理开始发生变化,人们对教会的种种限制越来越反感,纷纷突破伦理限制追求经济利益。面对这一新形势,教会内部爆发了激烈的冲突.在冲突中,首当其冲的是高利贷。中古教会内部的高利贷之争通常被认为是资本主义诞生前的阵痛。宗教改革从某种程度上成为这种经济伦理转变的一个契机和转折点.
在西欧,路德首举宗教改革大旗,提出了因信称义等一些列的新教教理。但是,对于高利贷,路德并未做出妥协,仍然坚持传统观点。继路德之后的加尔文对于高利贷的诠释成为高利贷观念改变的转折点。在英国,初期的新教在高利贷观念并不完全认同加尔文,但是清教自身具备与经济获利气味相投的个人主义,经济个人主义与当时英国经济形势变化促使英国高利贷观念发生了重大转变。使高利贷概念发生了根本性的变化,完成了由传统到现在的转变。高利贷的变化,在一定程度上反映了转型时期英国经济伦理的转变。经济伦理领域的变动,为英国商业文明准备好了道路,这种文明也为后来英国成为强国铺平了道路。本文试图通过宗教改革并结合英国的清教革命来论述近代早期英国高利贷观念的转变历程。
关键词: 高利贷 宗教改革 英国清教

 

Abstract

 

Medieval economy of Western Europe was largely confined by church ethics. Catholic Church ethics put kinds of limitations on economy. To some degree, it can be said economy was under the control of church. With the development of commerce, economic ethics which were closely related with church ethics began to change. Meanwhile, people's repulse to limitations by church grew stronger and stronger. They broke the ethical confinement to seek economic interests. Facing this situation, fierce conflict broke out inside the church. Usury in medieval and ancient churches was regarded as intermittent pain and was most influenced by this conflict. In such a case, Reformation, to some extent, turned to be a turning point for the transition of economic ethics.
In Western Europe, Luther, as the leader of Reformation, came up with such new religious belief as Justification by Faith. However, Luther made no concessions to usury and persisted in traditional viewpoint. After Luther, Calvin's interpretation of usury came to be the turning point of people's understanding of usury. In Britain, Puritanism didn't completely agree with Calvin in understanding of usury. Yet, Puritanism possessed individualism which favored economic profit. Economic individualism and the then economic situation of Britain motivated a great change to concept of usury. The alternation of usury, to some extent, reflected the transition of economic ethics of a changing Britain. The change of economic ethics paved a way for British commercial civilization which in turn prepared Britain fully to become a strong nation. This thesis, with reference to Reformation and British Puritan revolution, expounds the change of concept of usury in early modern England.
Key words: Usury Reformation English Puritanis

 

目 录

中文摘要 1
Abstract 2
目录 3
第一章 引言 1
第二章 中世纪的高利贷观念 6
第一节 中世纪教会的高利贷观念 6
第二节 中世纪高利贷实际和高利贷之争 8
第三章 宗教改革与英国高利贷观念的嬗变 13
第一节 路德对高利贷的看法 13
第二节 加尔文对高利贷的看法 17
第四章 英国高利贷观念的转变 24
第一节 清教徒与高利贷 24
第二节 英格兰高利贷观念的最终转变 32
结语 36
参考文献 38


 

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